bullet Sensors and Biosensors, MEMS Technologies and its Applications

        

  Title: Sensors and Biosensors, MEMS Technologies and its Applications (Book Series: Advances in Sensors: Reviews, Vol. 2)

  Editor: Sergey Y. Yurish

  Publisher: International Frequency Sensor Association (IFSA) Publishing

  Formats: paperback (print book) and printable pdf Acrobat (e-book) 558 pages

  Price: 162.95 EUR for e-book and 179.95 EUR (taxes and mail shipping cost are included) for print book in paperback.

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  Pubdate: 15 April 2013

  ISBN: 978-84-616-4154-3

  e-ISBN: 978-84-616-4153-6

 

 

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 Book Description

 

 

The second volume titled ‘Sensors and Biosensors, MEMS Technologies and its Applications’ from the 'Advances in Sensors: Review' Book Series contains eighteen chapters with sensor related state-of-the-art reviews and descriptions of the latest achievements written by experts from academia and industry from 12 countries: China, India, Iran, Malaysia, Poland, Singapore, Spain, Taiwan, Thailand, UK, Ukraine and USA.

 

This book ensures that our readers will stay at the cutting edge of the field and get the right and effective start point and road map for the further researches and developments. By this way, they will be able to save more time for productive research activity and eliminate routine work.

 

Built upon the series Advances in Sensors: Reviews - a premier sensor review source, it presents an overview of highlights in the field and becomes. This volume is divided into three main parts: physical sensors, biosensors, nanoparticles, MEMS technologies and applications. With this unique combination of information in each volume, the Advances in Sensors: Reviews Book Series will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

 

Like the first volume of this Book Series, the second volume also has been organized by topics of high interest. In order to offer a fast and easy reading of the state of the art of each topic, every chapter in this book is independent and self-contained. The eighteen chapters have the similar structure: first an introduction to specific topic under study; second particular field description including sensing applications.

 

 

Contents:

 

Preface (164 Kb, Acrobat reader logo)

 

Contributors (150 Kb, Acrobat reader logo)
 

 

Chapter 1
Smart Sensors for Smartphones: How to Make it Smarter ?

 
1.1. MEMS and Sensor Markets for Smartphones and Tablets
1.2. Sensors for Smartphones: Sate-of-the-Art
1.2.1. Physical Sensors
1.2.2. Chemical Sensors and Biosensors
1.3. Design Approach: Gadget or Measuring Instrument ?
1.3.1. Technology Limitation
1.3.2. Traditional Design Approach and Sensor Interfacing
1.3.3. Combo Sensors
1.3.4. Advanced Design Approach
1.4. Summary and the Future Trends
 

References

 

 

Chapter 2
Phase Dynamics, Synchronization and Sensing by SAW Delay Line Coupling Between Nonlinear SAW Oscillators


2.1. Introduction
2.2. SAW Delayed Self-Feedback Oscillator
2.2.1. SAW Delay Line
2.2.2. SAW Delay Line Oscillator
2.2.3. Amplifier Transfer Function
2.2.4. SAW Delay Line Transfer Response
2.2.5. Delay Differential Equation for SAW Delay Line Oscillator
2.2.6. Delay Differential Equation by Feng and Chicone
2.2.7. Self-Sustained Limit Cycle Oscillations
2.3. SAW Delayed Coupling of SAW Delay Line Oscillators
2.3.1. Two SAW Delay Line Oscillators Coupled by On-Chip Acoustic Field
2.3.2. Two SAW Delay Line Oscillators Coupled by a SAW Delay Line
2.3.2.1. Coupling Configuration
2.3.2.2. Coupled Delay Differential Phase Equations
2.4. Synchronization
2.4.1. Fully Coupled Configuration
2.4.2. Feedback Coupled Configuration
2.4.3. Direct Coupled Configuration
2.4.4. Synchronization Examples
2.5. Basis for Synchronization Mode Sensing
2.5.1. Synchronization Mode Sensitivity
2.5.2. Simulation Examples
2.6. Noise Reduction in Synchronization Mode Sensing
2.7. Discussion
2.8. Conclusion
 

References

 


Chapter 3
Fingerprint Sensors: Liveness Detection and Hardware Solutions


3.1. Introduction
3.2. Spoofing Techniques in Fingerprint Sensors
3.3. Fingerprint Sensing Technologies
3.3.1. Optical Sensors
3.3.1.1. Frustrated Total Internal Reflection (FTIR)
3.3.1.2. Multispectral Imaging
3.3.1.3. 3D Touchless Imaging
3.3.1.4. TFT (Thin Film Transistor) Optical
3.3.1.5. Electro-optical
3.3.2. Capacitive
3.3.3. Radio Frequency (RF)
3.3.4. Thermal
3.3.5. Ultrasound
3.3.6. Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS)
3.4. Proposed Hardware based Liveness Detection Methods
3.4.1. Biological Signals
3.4.1.1. Blood Flow
3.4.1.2. Pulse Rate
3.4.1.3. Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG)
3.4.1.4. Electroencephalography (EEG)
3.4.1.5. Finger Skin Odour Analysis
3.4.1.6. Temperature of Finger Tip Epidermis
3.4.2. Skin Physiology Characteristics
3.4.2.1. Pulse Oximetry
3.4.2.2. Skin Spectroscopy
3.4.3. Stimulus Response
3.4.3.1. Skin Impedance
3.4.3.2. Electrotactile
3.5. Conclusion
 

References

 

 

Chapter 4
Plasma Polymerized Thin Film Sensors


4.1. Introduction
4.1.1. Historical Prospective
4.1.2. Plasma State
4.2. Plasma Polymerization
4.3. Structure of Plasma Polymerized Material
4.4. Mechanism of Plasma Polymerization
4.5. Plasma Deposition Technique
4.5.1. Low Pressure Plasma Deposition
4.5.2. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Deposition
4.6. Different Techniques to Produce Plasma Discharge
4.7. Principle of Paschen’s Law
4.8. Selection of Gases with Liquids
4.9. Surface Modification of Plasma Materials
4.9.1. Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD)
4.10. Plasma Polymerized Thin Film Sensor
4.11. Characterization of Plasma Polymers
4.12. Difficulties in Plasma Polymerization Method
4.12.1. Application of Plasma Polymerized Thin Films
4.13. Conclusion
 

Acknowledgement
 

References

 

 

Chapter 5
MEMS Non-Silicon Fabrication Technologies


5.1. Introduction
5.2. Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Technology
5.2.1. Fabrication Processes for PCB Technology
5.2.1.1. Thin Film Deposition
5.2.1.2. Planarization
5.2.1.2.1. Polishing and Planarization Process
5.2.1.2.2. Compressive Molding Planarization (COMP)
5.2.1.3. Micro-vias in PCB
5.2.1.4. Other Processes
5.2.2. Applications of PCB Technology
5.3. Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramics (LTCC)
5.3.1. Fabrication Processes for LTCC Technology
5.3.1.1. Screen Printing
5.3.1.2. Micromachining
5.3.1.3. Via Punching
5.3.1.4. Lamination
5.3.1.5. Co-firing
5.3.2. Applications of LTCC Technology
5.4. Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP) Technology
5.4.1. Fabrication Processes of LCP Technology
5.4.1.1. Spin Coating/lithography and Metallization
5.4.1.2. Etching
5.4.1.3. Drilling Holes
5.4.2. MEMS Applications of LCP Technology
5.5. Polymer Core Conductors Technology
5.5.1. Fabrication Processes of Polymer Core Conductors Technology
5.5.2. MEMS Applications of Polymer Core Conductor Technology
5.6. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) Technology
5.6.1. Fabrication Process of PDMS Technology
5.6.2. MEMS Applications of PDMS Technology
5.7. Conclusion
 

Acknowledgment
 

References

 

 

Chapter 6
MEMS Applications in Medical Industries: Review


6.1. Introduction
6.2. MEMS in Surgical Fields
6.2.1. MEMS Based Micro-Machined Cutting Tools
6.2.2. MEMS Based Eye-Surgery (Minimally Invasive Type)
6.2.3. MEMS Based Catheters
6.2.4. MEMS Based Endoscopy
6.2.5. MEMS Based Tactile Sensing
6.3. Drug Delivery Systems Based on MEMS
6.3.1. MEMS Based Micro Reservoirs
6.3.2. MEMS Based Micro Needles
6.3.3. MEMS Based Micro Pumps and Values
6.4. MEMS in Diagnostics
6.4.1. MEMS Based Optical Sensing
6.4.2. MEMS based Micro-cantilever Beam Sensor
6.5. Conclusions
 

References

 

 

Chapter 7
MEMS Switches for RF Applications


7.1. Introduction
7.2. Classification of RF MEMS Switches
7.2.1. Metal to Metal Contact RF MEMS Switches
7.2.2. Capacitive Coupling RF MEMS Switches
7.3. Characteristics and Performances of RF MEMS Switches
7.3.1. Actuation Voltage
7.3.2. RF Characterization (Isolation, Insertion loss and Return Loss)
7.3.3. Switch Lifetime
7.3.4. RF Signal Power Handling
7.3.5. Temperature Sensitivity
7.3.6. Switching Speed
7.4. Conclusion
 

References

 

 

Chapter 8
Advances in Amperometric Acetylcholinesterase Biosensors


8.1. Introduction
8.2. AChE Source
8.3. AChE Immobilization
8.4. Electrode Modification
8.5. New Trends and Challenges
8.5.1. Miniaturization
8.5.2. High Throughput and Quantification Detection
8.5.3. Integration of Detection System
8.5.4. Real Samples Detections
8.5.5. Combined Sensor for OP and Carbamates Detection
8.6. Conclusions
 

Acknowledgments
 

References

 

 

Chapter 9
Quartz Crystal Microbalance DNA Based Biosensors for Diagnosis and Detection: A Review


9.1. Introduction
9.2. Quartz Crystal Microbalance Biosensor
9.2.1. Background
9.2.2. Piezoelectricity
9.2.3. Relationship between Added Mass and Frequency Shift
9.3. DNA Analysis
9.3.1. Structure and Stability of DNA
9.3.2. DNA-based Biosensors
9.3.3. DNA Biosensors based on QCM Detection
9.3.4. DNA Based QCM for Clinical Diagnosis
9.4. Conclusions
 

Acknowledgments
 

References

 

 

Chapter 10
Recent Advance in Antibody or Hapten Immobilization Protocols
of Electrochemical Immunosensor for Detection of Pesticide Residues


10.1. Introduction
10.2. Electrochemical Immunosensors
10.3. Immobilization Protocols
10.3.1. Physical Adsorption
10.3.2. Covalent Coupling
10.3.3. Entrapment
10.3.3.1. Sol-gel Entrapment
10.3.3.2. Electrically Conducting Polymers Entrapment
10.3.4. Oriented Immobilization
10.3.5. Avidin–biotin Affinity Reaction
10.3.6. Self-assembled Monolayer (SAM)
10.3.7. Nanoparticles
10.4. New Trends and Challenges
10.4.1. Miniaturization
10.4.2. High Throughput of Detection Samples
10.4.3. Integration of Detection System
10.4.4. Real Samples Detections
10.4.5. Using Aptamer to Replace Antibody
 

Acknowledgements
 

References

Chapter 11
Review on Interaction between Electromagnetic Field
and Biological Tissues


11.1. Introduction
11.2. Mathematical Description of EM Field
11.3. EM Field in General
11.3.1. Near Field and Far Field Region
11.3.2 Mechanism of EM Field Interaction with Biological Tissues
11.3.2.1. Thermal Effects
11.3.2.2. Non Thermal Effects
11.4. Properties of Biological Tissue
11.4.1. Biological Tissues in General
11.4.2. Types of Biological Tissues and Cell Membrane
11.4.3. Cell Membrane and Electrical Equivalent
11.5. Electrical Properties of Biological Tissues
11.6. Main Features of the Dielectric Spectrum of a Biological Tissue
11.7. Electrical Properties of Normal and Tumour Cells
11.8. A Case Study: Normal and Tumour Cells of Liver
11.9. EM Field Applications in Biological Tissue Imaging
11.9.1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
11.9.2. Magnetic Induction Tomography (MIT)
11.10. Conclusion
 

Acknowledgment
 

References

 

 

Chapter 12
Application of Biotoxin Determination Using Advanced Miniaturized Sensing Platform


12.1. Introduction
12.2. Material for Microsensing Platform
12.2.1. Metal Nanomaterials
12.2.1.1. Metal NMs for Electrochemical Sensing
12.2.1.2. Metal NMs for Colorimetric Sensing
12.2.1.3. Metal NMs for Fluorescent Sensing
12.2.2. Carbon Nanotubes
12.2.3. Quantum Dots
12.2.4. Graphene
12.3. Sensing Formats
12.3.1. Electrochemical Sensing
12.3.1.1. Voltammetric Sensing
12.3.1.2. Conductivity/Capacitance Electrochemical Sensing
12.3.1.3. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy
12.3.1.4. Potentiometric Sensing
12.3.2. Optical Sensing
12.3.2.1. SPR Sensing
12.3.2.2. Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS)
12.3.2.3. Fluorescent Sensing
12.3.2.4. Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET)
12.3.2.5. Chemiluminescence
12.3.3. Electronic Sensing
12.3.4. Piezoelectric Sensing
12.4. Application of Microsensing Platform for Biotoxin Determination
12.4.1. Phytotoxin
12.4.1.1. Caffeine
12.4.1.2. Morphine
12.4.1.3. Terpenes
12.4.2. Animal Toxin
12.4.2.1. Apitoxin
12.4.2.2. Spider Toxin
12.4.2.3. Snake Toxin
12.4.3. Marine Toxin
12.4.3.1. Shellfish Poisoning Toxin
12.4.3.2. Fish Poisoning Toxin
12.4.4. Microbial Toxin
12.4.4.1. Mycotoxin
12.4.4.2. Bacterial Toxin
12.5. Conclusion
 

Acknowledgments
 

Reference

 

 

Chapter 13
Ultralow Detection of Bio-markers Using Gold Nanoshells


13.1. Introduction
13.1.1. Radiation Exposure
13.1.2. Gold Nanoshells as a Biosensor
13.1.3. Immunoassays
13.2. Methods and Materials
13.2.1. Gold Nanoshell Synthesis
13.2.2. Immobiliation of PEG-ProG Conjugate and Antibodies to Nanoshell Surface
13.2.3. ELISA on GNS to Determine the Number of Anti-Rb on Surface
13.2.4. Detection of Antigen/IgG Complex
13.2.5. Surface ELISA using GNS-Conjugate
13.3. Results and Discussion
13.3.1. Assessment of GNS-PEG-ProG-Anti-Rb Conjugation
13.3.2. Quantification on GNS to Determine the Number of Active Antibodies on the Particle Surface Using an ELISA
13.3.3. Detection of Analyte Complex
13.3.4. Assessment of Surface ELISA
13.4. Conclusion and Future
 

References

 

 

Chapter 14
Anchoring Materials for Ultra-Sensitive Biosensors Modified with Au Nanoparticles and Enzymes


14.1. Introduction
14.1.1. Principle of Biosensors
14.2. Materials and Method
14.2.1. Electrodes
14.2.2. Materials
14.2.3. Nanoparticles and Electrode Preparations
14.2.4. Detections
14.3. Results and Discussions
14.3.1. GDH Coating on GCE, Au, and Pt Electrode for NH4+ Detection
14.3.2. LDH Coating on Pt, Au, and GCE for Lactate Detection
14.3.3. Hemoglobin Coating on GCE, Pt, Au Electrode for H2O2 and Nitrite Detection
14.3.4. Specificity of the Ultra-High Performing Electrode Sensor
14.3.5. Stability of Biosensor Electrodes with Time
14.3.6. Reproducibility of the Biosensor Electrodes after Repeated Uses
14.3.7. Identification of Analyte by Cyclic Voltammetry
14.4. Conclusions
 

Acknowledgement
 

References

 

 

Chapter 15
Biomimetic Systems for Classification and Authentication of Beverages


15.1. Introduction
15.2. Electronic Nose
15.2.1. E-nose Sensors
15.2.1.1. Metal Oxide Semiconductor Sensors
15.2.1.2. Conducting Organic Polymer Sensors
15.2.1.3. Piezoelectric Crystal Sensors
15.2.1.4. Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field-effect Transistor Sensors (MOSFET)
15.2.2. E-nose Based on SAW Sensor (zNose)
15.2.2.1. Principle of zNose and its Operation
15.3. Electronic Tongue (E-tongue)
15.3.1. Sensing Principles
15.3.2. E-tongue Based on Voltammetry
15.3.2.1. Measurement Setup
15.3.2.2. Measurement Procedure
15.4. Data Analysis Methods
15.4.1. Principal Component Analysis (PCA)
15.4.2. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA)
15.4.3. Artificial Neural Networks
15.4.4. Probabilistic Neural Networks
15.5. Applications of Biomimetic Systems
15.5.1. E-nose (zNose) for Nondestructive Analysis of Indian Teas
15.5.1.1. Experimental Details
15.5.1.1.1. Tea Samples
15.5.1.1.2. Tea Sample Preparation for the zNose
15.5.1.1.3. zNose GC Parameters
15.5.1.2. Data Analysis
15.5.1.3. Results and Discussion
15.5.1.3.1. Frequency Spectral Response of Tea Samples
15.5.1.3.2. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of Frequency Spectra
15.5.1.4. Classification of Samples by PCA-LDA
15.5.2. Authentication of Indian Wines Using E-tongue
15.5.2.1. Material and Methods
15.5.2.1.1. Wine Samples
15.5.2.1.2. Operation of the E-tongue System
15.5.2.2. Data Analysis
15.5.2.3. Results and Discussion
15.5.2.3.1. Feature Extraction
15.5.2.3.2. PCA Analysis of Voltammetric E-tongue
15.5.2.3.3. Results of PCA on Raw Data
15.5.2.3.4. Results of PCA on Reduced Data
15.5.2.4. Classification Results of Indian Wines
15.6. Conclusions
 

Acknowledgements
 

References

 

 

Chapter 16
Magnetic Bead Based Biosensors: Design and Development


16.1. Introduction
16.2. Materials and Methods
16.2.1. Adiponectin
16.2.2. Superparamagnetic Beads
16.2.3. Magnetic Particle Assay(MPA)
16.3. Results and Discussion
16.3.1. Nitrocellulose Based Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)
16.3.2. Sensor System Model
16.3.3. Magnetic Field Effect Transistor
16.4. Testing and Result
16.5. Conclusion
 

Acknowledgement
 

References

 

 

Chapter 17
Human Blood Analytes Biochemical Sensors Based on Microsphere Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy


17.1. Introduction
17.2. Structure and Optical Properties of Skin
17.2.1. Structure, Physical and Optical Properties of fibrous Tissues
17.2.2. Structure, Physical and Optical Properties of Whole Blood
17.3. Optical Microsphere Resonators
17.4. Raman Scattering
17.4.1. Basic Principle
17.4.2. Raman Gain
17.4.3. Principles of SERS
17.4.4. The Effect of Nanostructures Morphology on SERS Enhancement
17.5. Theoretical Development of a Non-invasive Micron Sized Blood Glucose Sensor
Based on Microsphere Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy
17.5.1. Governing Equations
17.5.1.1. Raman Gain
17.5.1.2. Optimal Wavelength Region
17.5.2. Results and Discussion
17.6. A Novel Optical Sensor for Troponin I Enzyme Based on Surface-enhanced
Raman Spectroscopy in Microsphere
17.6.1. cTnI Sensor Structure
17.6.2. Electric Field Enhancement near the Silver Nanoparticle
17.6.3. cTnI Detection Based on SRS and SERS
17.7. Conclusion

 

 

Chapter 18
Simple and Robust Multipoint Data Acquisition Bus Built on Top
of the Standard RS232 Interface


18.1. Introduction
18.2. Network Topology
18.3. Protocol Outline
18.4. Resilience Considerations
18.4.1. Hot-swap and Hot-plug Capabilities
18.4.1.1. Resolving the Extra Device Attachment
18.4.1.2. Resolving the Device Replacement
18.4.1.3. Resolving the Device Removal
18.4.2. Failure Diagnostics
18.5. Bandwidth and Timing Considerations
18.6. Application Example
18.7. Conclusion
18.8. Appendix: Practical RS232 Transceiver Circuits
18.8.1. Generating RS232 Line Voltages in a Single Power Supply System 535
18.8.1.1. Rail Splitting
18.8.1.2. Charge Pumping
18.8.2. Transmitter Schematics
18.8.3. Receiver Schematics
18.8.4. Concluding Remarks
 

References

 

 

Index

 

 

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