bullet On-line Magazine 'Sensors & Transducers' (S&T e-Digest)

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2003 S&T e-Digest Contents



No. 8, August 2004



Table of Contents




Increasing of Signal Processing Efficiency for Frequency Sensors


Signal processing errors are considered at an estimation of frequency-time parameters. The optimum weight function is proposed, which efficiency is determined on the basis of the generalized correlation analysis. Opportunities of signals filtration are investigated on the basis of wavelet-transformations.


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Victor G. Patyukov

Krasnoyarsk State Technical University

660074, Krasnoyarsk, str. Kirenskogo, 26,

E-mail: pvg@fromru.com



Selection of the Most Efficient Sensors for Methanol Detection

in Fake Alcohol


High concentration ethanol was always found in adulteration fake alcohol. And almost all tin oxide gas sensors are high sensitive not only to methanol but also to ethanol. Furthermore, high concentration of ethanol in wine is very easy to saturate sensor responses and mask the response to other aroma compounds. In order to optimize the system cost, speed and reliability and then to select the best sensors suitable for this application, a method called organization feature parameter based on formulae expression tree by using genetic algorithms has been proposed in this paper. It could solve the problem how to getting optimum sensors, and make the genetic algorithm more convenient and straight Three optimum gas-sensors were selected, and combination the three sensors feature parameters by the new method could distinguish different fake alcohol samples.


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School of Biological and Environmental Engineering

Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China

E-mail: zou_xiaobo@ujs.edu.cn





Filtered Triaxial Accelerometer


Depew, NY -The Vibration Division of PCB Piezotronics, Inc. has introduced a new miniature, lightweight ICP® triaxial accelerometer that simultaneously measures vibration in three orthogonal directions. The sensor features built-in filtering, which allows frequencies of interest in the useable range to pass unchanged. It will also eliminate high frequencies due to metal-to-metal impact (such as gear mesh or drivetrain noise), therefore minimizing the potential of sensor overload and erroneous measurements.


Model 356A66 has built-in signal conditioning microelectronics to produce low-impedance voltage outputs that can be transmitted over long cable lengths and is protected inside a precision-machined, hermetically sealed titanium housing. Sensitivity rating of 10 mV/g with a 500 g peak measurement range is standard, while a high temperature option for applications that require up to 3250 F0 (1630 C0) is available. Typical applications include automotive test cells, engine studies, NVH, dynamometer, track testing and off-road testing.


Bill Coffta, Inside Sales Manager,

Vibration Division

3425 Walden Avenue

Depew, NY 14043-2495, USA

Tel: (888) 684-0013, fax: (716) 685-3886

E-mail: caszkler@pcb.com

Triaxial accelerometer 356A66



Automotive, Industrial Infrared (IR) Thermometer for Remote Temperature Sensing


The automotive, motor-sport, industrial infrared (IR) thermometer from Solid State Racing LLC. performs signal conditioning, linearization and ambient temperature compensation. The modules are built around an automotive qualified sensor interface, which uses high performance chopper stabilized amplifiers, providing excellent noise performance. The sensing element is an automotive qualified discrete IR thermopile sensor. 


The automotive plastic casing is formed using automotive qualified processing to give a highly temperature stable module. The modules are delivered factory calibrated. The output signal is 8bit analog voltage output based on 10bit internal process. All output signals are linear with the applied temperature. The module features a flexible polyamide substrate, making the sensor highly robust for motor-racing, automotive and industrial applications.


The modules have been used successfully by several racing teams in the 2003 season. Industrial, Automotive and Racing applications supported.


Brian Rogove,

Solid State Racing LLC

P.O.Box 164, Royal Oak.

48068, USA

E-mail: bgr@solidstateracing.com


Infrared thermometer

Capacitive Accelerometer Signal Conditioners


Depew, NY -The Electronics Division of PCB Piezotronics, Inc. offers capacitive sensor signal conditioners that provide excitation power for capacitive accelerometers and prepare their measurement signals for readout, recording, and data acquisition.


A variety of signal conditioner platforms are offered, including portable, benchtop, modular, and rack-mount styles. Battery and optional DC-powered units are ideal for in-vehicle applications or remote testing environments where AC power may be unavailable.


All styles include per-channel null adjustment for zeroing the DC offset voltage inherent to capacitive accelerometers. Optional features such as gain, filtering, rms conversion, and computer control allow the user to select a system to suit their particular needs.


Bill Andrews, Division Manager,

Electronics Division

3425 Walden Avenue

Depew, NY 14043-2495, USA

Tel: (716) 684-0002, fax: (716) 684-0987

E-mail: bandrews@pcb.com

Capacitive accelerometer signal conditioners



Smart Glasses


Cambridge, UK, August 11, 2004 A monitoring and display breakthrough from Cambridge Consultants could give athletes the means to truly optimize their training and performance - without the need for the conventional armoury of sensors and awkward wrist displays. Instead, the athlete of tomorrow will just need to wear a pair of glasses, which incorporate everything needed to monitor and display key biomedical parameters in real time.


The sort of products that Cambridge Consultants envisages are smart goggles for swimmers, or glasses for distance runners or cyclists, providing real-time feedback on biomedical functions as well as timing data on the athletic performance in progress.


Behind Technospecs lies work on a number of technologies that will transform the technology concept into a commercial product. These include miniaturization of optical and sensory electronics, mechanical engineering to optimize the positioning and stability of the sensors, electronics and battery, and - most significantly - signal-processing techniques to produce reliable measurements from a moving, sweating athlete. One further intriguing implementation possibility is the addition of a wireless communications link to the Technospecs chip, so that an athlete could transfer performance data to a PC for detailed analysis, or to the trainer.


The technology has many applications around the sporting arena. The sensor technology of pulse oximetry which provides the data on blood oxygen levels would be particularly useful to athletes in extreme conditions such as mountaineers, skydivers and pilots at high altitude. The compact head-up display technology also presents opportunities in automotive sport where the ability to display sensor readings in a helmet or viewfinder could eliminate the need to look down at controls. Monitoring of real time physical data also has applications beyond sport, such as in the armed forces or emergency services.


Patrick Pordage, Communications Manager,

Cambridge Consultants Ltd,

Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge,


E-mail: patrick.pordage@cambridgeconsultants.com

Smart Glasses



MEMS-based Digital Sensor for Inertial Navigation System


The IMT6000, manufactured by IMEGO of Sweden, is the first ultra light INS device able to track motion for 10 seconds with positional accuracy, in x,y,z coordinates, of a few centimeters and angular accuracy surpassing 0.3°. The IMT6000 can track velocity during 20 seconds of motion to within 0.01 m/s.


The system consists of a 60 gram IMU sensor head that collects, digitizes, stores and transmits all sensory data. A stand-by laptop receives the digital information via a BlueTooth link and computes all requested motion parameters, including positions and angles for all degrees of freedom. The complete motion event is captured and can be replayed in minute detail, with resolutions of several hundred samples per second.


The digital IMU sensor head builds on commercial micro machined gyros and accelerometers that are boosted with noise removal algorithms to reach noise levels of 0.005°/sÖHz and 60µg/ÖHz, throughout the generous measuring ranges of ± 3600°/s and ± 50g. Another important parameter for motion tracking is the bias stability of the sensors. The IMT6000 is capable of stabilities down to 10°/hr and 100 µg. All sensors are sampled at 2.7kHz and filtered in several stages to finally display information with 200 Hz resolution.


Dan Larsson,

Imego AB, Arvid Hedvalls backe 4

411 33 Göteborg, Sweden

E-mail: dan.larsson@imego.com




Maintenance Free Torque Transducers


Depew, New York, USA -Rotating torque transducers from the Force/Torque Division of PCB Piezotronics, Inc. utilize non-contact, rotary transformers for sending excitation voltage to, and receiving measurement signals from, the rotating strain gage sensor. The maintenance-free, rotary transformer design eliminates the need for replacing worn brushes, as is the case with conventional slip ring type rotating torque sensors. The units are an ideal choice for use in dynamometers and in torque studies on fuel pumps, hydraulic motors and pumps, combustion engines, drive shafts, transmissions, fans, and electric motors.


The standard Series 4100 rotary transformer torque sensors offer capacities from 50 in-oz to 100,000 in-lb (0.35 to 11.3k N-m) full scale and maximum speeds to 20,000 rpm. In addition to the torque output signal, an optional pickup provides an output proportional to speed. The units feature high torsional stiffness and are available with keyed shaft, spline shaft, or flange ends. Custom designed units are available for alternate measurement ranges and speeds.


Peter Munschauer, Division Manager

Force/torque Divison

3425 Walden Avenue

Depew, NY 14043-2495 USA

Tel: (716) 684-0002 ext. 2405, fax: (716) 684-8877

E-mail: pmunschauer@pcb.com

Series 4100 rotary torque sensors



EcotestCARD Personal Gamma Radiation Dosimeter


Sparing-Vist Center, Lviv, UA has introduced new miniaturized credit card sized personal radiation dosimeter DKG-21 that measures gamma and X-ray radiation equivalent dose (µSv) and rate (µSv/h). It can be used at atomic power engineering sites, physics laboratories, Health Care organizations, as well as an electronic dosimeter for automated systems of personal dosimetry control ASPDC-21, and as an autonomous device.


Model DKG-21 has built-in microcontroller and energy compensated Geiger-Muller counter to produce measurements and accumulate results in non-volatile memory . The dosimeter size is only 86х54х9 (mm), weight - 0.08 kg. The speed of data exchange through infrared port is 38 400 bit/s.


Pelishok Iryna, Head of Sales Department

33 Volodymyr Velykyy St. Lviv, 79026, Ukraine

Tel.: (380-322) 64-24-23, 297-11-15, 64-77-93

Fax: (380-322) 64-89-85

E-mail: market@ecotest.ua

EcoTestCard radiation dosimeter



Multi-channel Analyzer for Acoustic and Vibration Applications


Provo, UT -The 5.1 release of the popular Pimento analyzer includes a new 4-channel version with a price tag sure to please those needing to step up to a multi-channel analyzer on a limited budget. An upgrade path to as many as 24 channels insures you won't soon outgrow your investment. 


Also featured is a new concept in pre-configured test procedure management, Acquire/Analyze/Report in 3 clicks. Procedures presently available include: Basic Octave and FFT Analyzer; Vehicle Ride Comfort: ISO2631, BS6841; Power Tool Handle Vibrations: ISO8662; Hand Transmitted Vibrations: ISO5349; Vehicle Interior Noise; Reverberation Time; Sound Transmission Loss: ISO140; Room Noise: NC and RC Methods.


Structural dynamic engineers will appreciate the exclusive LMS PolyMAX algorithm now available in this update of the powerful Pimento Modal Analysis software. This method gives much better and clearer estimates for resonances than other commonly used techniques, thus minimizing the risk of making errors during the pole selection process.


Acoustics engineers can benefit from the expanded capabilities of the Pimento Sound Power and Sound Intensity software.


John Carey,

Marketing Manager, Acoustic Test Products

Larson Davis, Inc.

1681 West 820 North, Provo, UT 84601, USA

Tel.: (888) 258-3222

E-mail: jcarey@larsondavis.com

Multi-channel Analyzer



Guided Wave Radar Level Transmitter


Prairieville, LA - K-TEK announced the new MT2000 Wave Guide Model C9P81 designed specifically for measuring level in saturated steam applications. The MT2000 uses guided wave radar to make measurements, which means no moving parts and, therefore, virtually no maintenance. A waveguide directs the microwave pulses, eliminating the beam divergence problems common to conventional non-contact radar transmitters. The new C9P81 Waveguide is designed specifically for saturated steam applications, such as those found in power generation plants and industrial heat processes. The C9P81 Waveguide features an alumina ceramic insulator that allows accurate and reliable measurements up to 2000 psi (138 bar) at 635°F (335°C).


The MT2000 family of level transmitters is the only one in the industry to provide built-in linearization functions. This allows users to minimize the unmeasurable or "dead" zones that can occur at the end of probes. While competitive products assume standard dead zones, all MT2000 incorporate a linearization table.


The MT2000 probes can be customized for retrofitting into existing stilling wells and displacer chambers, from 2 - 20 feet. Output is via 4-20 MA, HART, or Honeywell DDE. Results are displayed locally with a built-in, scrolling LCD panel that offers measurements in a field-selectable choice of feet, inches, millimeters, centimeters, meters, or percent.


Kevin Hambrice,

Director of Marketing,


18321 Swamp Road, Prairieville, LA

70769 USA

Tel:+1 225.673.6100

Fax: +1 225.673.2525

E-mail: khambrice@ktekcorp.com


Radar Level Transmitter MT2000



4-20 mA Rotating Machinery Fault Detector


August 13, 2004, Depew, NY – The IMI Division of PCB Piezotronics introduces Model 682A05, dual 4-20 mA output, DIN rail mount machinery fault detector (Patent Pending), that is designed to capture the earliest signs of bearing deterioration with a minimum of personnel training. Through a 1 KHz/5 KHz selectable high-pass filter, the first output measures “peak” g levels over a specified time interval, which is critical in the detection of early bearing faults. The second output measures “overall” vibration levels in user-selectable units, from 10 Hz to 1 KHz. This second output is ideal for detecting low frequency faults such as out-of-balance and misalignment.


Able to interface with existing plant architecture (PLC, SCADA, DCS), this unit will provide 24/7 monitoring of rotating equipment and is well suited for detecting lubrication starvation, inner and outer race faults, impacting, and contamination.


Eric Yax, Inside Sales Manager

IMI Sensors Division

3425 Walden Avenue

Depew, NY 14043-2495

Tel.:(800) 959-4464 ext. 2377, fax: (716) 684-3823

E-mail: eyax@pcb.com

Machinery fault detector





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