bullet On-line Magazine 'Sensors & Transducers' (S&T e-Digest)

    (ISSN 1726- 5479)



No. 12, December 2003



Table of Contents




Precise Magnetic Sensors and Magnetometers for Military and Space Applications


Abstract: Presented paper describes high precise fluxgate magnetic sensors designed and realized in our laboratory and their applications for military and space systems. In military applications the sensors are used in the systems for localization of unexploded ammunition in ground, where two different projects will be presented. The sensors were also used for realization of precise fluxgate magnetometer for new Czech scientific satellite MIMOSA.


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A. Cerman, P. Ripka, P. Kaspar, A. Tipek, A. Platil

Czech Technical University, Faculty of Electrical Engineering,

Dept. of Measurement

Technicka 2, 166 27 Prague 6, Czech Republic

E-mail: xcermana@feld.cvut.cz,



Fluctuation-Enhanced Sensing with Commercial Gas Sensors


Abstract: The stochastic component of the sensor signal in commercial semiconductor gas sensors during exposure to different gases has been studied. The resistance fluctuation measurements have been carried out using different concentrations of ethanol, CO, NOx, H2 and SO2 in dry synthetic air. The analysis of the stochastic resistance fluctuations in gas sensors during exposure to gases enables an enhanced sensitivity and selectivity. The normalized power spectrum is characteristic for each sensor, and each gas induces a new characteristic power spectrum. In many cases, sensors can be used even for different gases than the gas they were originally designed for.


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Jose L. SOLIS, Gary SEETON, Yingfeng LI, and Laszlo B. KISH

Department of Electrical Engineering, Texas A&M University,

College Station, TX 77843-3128, USA

Phone: (979) 847-9071, fax: (979) 845-6259 

E-mail: Laszlo.Kish@ee.tamu.edu



Measurements of Critical Micelle Concentration (CMC) Using U-shaped

Optical Fiber Doped Porous Sol-Gel Cladding


Abstract: We present a sol-gel derived coating U-shaped optical fiber sensors for measurement of critical micelle concentration of surfactants. A sol-gel process for making porous silica and doping the U-shaped fiber core with sensing material is described. The doped sol-gel cladding fiber was used to construct an active cladding U-shaped optical fiber CMC measurement sensor. The porous sol-gel film was deposited a 1000?m core plastic clad silica fiber after removing the cladding of the fiber at the middle portion nearly 6 cm and bending in U-shaped design. CMC detection is based on an adsorption effect in sample solution mainly of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate. Three different particles size of sol-gel porous cladding were tested in our lab. Test results show that the sensitivity of the small particle size porous sol-gel cladding U-shaped optical fiber in sensing region is higher than that of large particle size sol-gel cladding based U-shaped. It was also found that measurement of CMC point using this method is very accurate and cost effective.


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C. D. Singh*, H. Isobe*, H. Katsumata* and M. Ogita**

* Graduate School of Electronics Science and Technology, Sizuoka University,

3-5-1 Johoku, Hamamatsu 432-8561, Shizuoka, Japan

** Electrical and Electronic Engineering Dept, Faculty of Engineering, Shizuoka University,

3-5-1 Johoku, Hamamatsu 432-8561, Shizuoka, Japan



Simulations of Piezoelectric Actuator by Finite Element Analysis


Abstract: The main objective of this paper is to use Finite Element Methods to simulate and analysis piezoelectric actuator. Silicon based clamp-free beam mounted with both sides PZT layer is used for analysis. The couple-field analysis is important for MEMS and use the FEM to achieve the results is the trend of this moment for saving cost and time. The studies are including the resonant frequency and harmonic response of piezocerarmic material. The equivalent piezoelectric transducer analysis and transient response are also discussed in detail. The simulative results from ANSYS are compared to the theoretic values as well.


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Der-Ho Wu 1 , Jeun-Wen Wu2, Ming-Feng Wu3, Chih-Jen Yang3

1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Associate Professor

3 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate student

National Pingtung University of Science and Technology

2 Department of Marine Engineering, Instructor

National Kaohsiung Institute of Marine Technology

Kaohsiung, Taiwan 811, R.O.C.

Hseuh Fu Road, 1, Neipu Hsiang, Pingtung, Taiwan, R.O.C. 91207

Tel.: +886-8-7703202,

E-mail: derhowu@mail.npust.edu.tw



Distributed Measurement Systems and Intelligent Processing for Water Quality Assessment


Abstract: This paper is a brief report on the several steps the authors have been through towards the implementation of a distributed measurement systems for real-time and in-situ monitoring of rivers, sea and lakes water quality. The paper describes the architecture of several systems and the corresponding objectives, refers to the transducers used and to the data processing implemented to obtain both accurate measurements and water quality indicators.


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Pedro GIRAO1, Octavian POSTOLACHE1,2,

Miguel PEREIRA1,2, Helena RAMOS1,

1Instituto de Telecomunicacoes, Lisboa, Portugal,

2Escola Superior de Tecnologia de Setubal, Portugal

E-mails: poctav@alfa.ist.utl.pt , joseper@est.ips.pt,

psgirao@ist.utl.pt, hgramos@alfa.ist.utl.pt




Charge-Mode General Purpose Dynamic Force Sensors


Depew, NY - Series Charge-Mode Force Sensors measure dynamic and quasi-static forces over a wide, full-scale measurement range of 10 Ib to 5000 Ib. Ruggedly constructed of stainless steel and hermetically sealed to protect against contamination, these miniature sensors are designed with pre-loaded quartz disks, enabling operation in compression, tension, or impact mode. 


Series 218 sensors offer high overload (160% full scale), operating temperatures up to 400F (204C), supplied with English and metric mounting studs and a removable impact cap that assures even distribution of load forces over the sensing surface. Ideal applications include stamping, modal analysis force input, tensile testing, drop and impact testing, fatigue testing, material testing, and biomechanics.



Peter Munschauer,

Division Manager

Force/Torque Division, 3425 Walden Avenue

Depew, NY 14043-2495

Tel: (888) 684-0004, fax: (716)684-8877

E-Mail: pmunschauer@pcb.com

218 Series Charge-Mode Force Sensors



"Low-Pass" Filtering, Triaxial Accelerometers


Depew, NY - The Vibration Division of PCB Piezotronics, Inc. has introduced a new line of miniature, lightweight ICP triaxial accelerometers that simultaneously measure vibration in three orthogonal directions. The sensors feature a built-in "Low-Pass" filter, which allows the low frequencies of interest to pass unchanged, while eliminating the undesirable high frequencies and minimizing the potential of sensor overload.


Models 356A61/63/66 have built-in signal conditioning microelectronics to produce low-impedance voltage outputs that can be transmitted over long cable lengths and are protected inside a precision-machined, hermetically sealed titanium housing. All models have a sensitivity rating of 10 mV/g with a 500 g peak measurement range, while Models 356A63 and 356A66 are available with a high temperature option for applications that require up to 325 F (163C). Typical applications include automotive test cells, engine studies, and environmental test chambers.


Craig S. Aszkler, Division Manager

Vibration Division

3425 Walden Avenue

Depew, NY 14043-2495

Tel: (888) 684-0013, fax: (716)685-3886

E-Mail: caszkler@pcb.com

356A61 /63 /66 Triaxial Accelerometers



Strain Gage Bridge Signal Conditioner


Depew, NY -The Force/Torque Division of PCB Piezotronics, Inc., introduces Model 8159A, a 1/8 DIN, panel mount signal conditioner specifically designed for use with strain gage based load cells.


The unit provides transducer excitation and signal conditioning with analog output. Standard features include front panel readout, two high and two low programmable set points, peak and valley monitoring, front panel calibration, and individual LED function status indicators. Optional features include 4-20 mA output, set point relay contacts for event alarm, shutdown or control, RS-232 serial communications output, and a display dummy zero.



Peter Munschauer, Division Manager

Force/Torque Division

3425 Walden Avenue

Depew, NY 14043-2495

Tel: (888) 684-0004, fax: (716)684-8877

E-Mail: pmunschauer@pcb.com

8159A  Strain Gage Bridge Signal Conditioner



Multi-Channel Capacitive Signal Conditioners


Depew, NY - Model 478A16 and 478A17 multi-channel capacitive signal conditioners from the Electronics Division of PCB Piezotronics, Inc., offer operation of 16 simultaneous channels in a 19-inch, rack mountable chassis.


Building block architecture permits the addition of many important features including gain, filtering, output channel switching, keypad adjustment and control, DC voltage operation, RS-232 and IEEE-488 computer interface, and daisy linking of multiple chassis. Signal conditioners are available in 100 to 240 VAC power, with DC offset null adjustment and overload indicators.


Bill Andrews, Division Manager

PCB Piezotronics, Inc. Electronics Division

3425 Walden Avenue

Depew, NY 14043-2495

Tel: (800)828-8840, fax: (716)684-0987

E-Mail: bandrews@pcb.com

478A16 and 478A17 multi-channel capacitive signal conditioners





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