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Vol. 218, Issue 12, December 2017, pp. 10-18




A Novel Routing Fault Tolerant Reliable Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

1 Islam MOURSY, 2 Mohamed ELDERINI and 3 Magdy AHMED

1, 2 Computer and Systems Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University Alexandria, 11432, Egypt
3 Vice Dean for Graduate Studies and Research, Faculty of Engineering Alexandria University Alexandria, 11432, Egypt
1 Tel.: +20 10 0170 4152

E-mail: islam.moursy@alexu.edu.eg, elderini@alexu.edu.eg, magdy@alexu.edu.eg


Received: 10 November 2017 /Accepted: 10 December 2017 /Published: 29 December 2017

Digital Sensors and Sensor Sysstems


Abstract: Wireless sensor networks operate in very challenging environments that make them prone to different types of faults. Hence, there is a high need for a reliable protocol that offers an acceptable functionality in the presence of faults. In this paper, we propose the Fault Tolerant Reliable Protocol (FTRP), a novel routing protocol designed to be used in wireless sensor networks. FTRP offers fault tolerance reliability for packet exchange, as well as adaptation for dynamic network changes. The key concept in this protocol is the use of node logical clustering. The protocol delegates the routing ownership to the cluster heads, where the fault tolerance functionally is implemented. FTRP utilizes cluster head nodes along with cluster head groups as intermediate storage for transient packets. In addition, FTRP utilizes broadcast in its routing messages communication. This technique substantially reduces the message overhead as compared to classical flooding mechanisms. FTRP manipulates Time to Live (TTL) values for the various routing messages in addition to utilizing jitters in messages transmission. FTRP performance has been evaluated through extensive simulations. Aggregate Throughput, Packet Delivery Ratio and End-to-End delay have been used as performance metrics. The results obtained showed that FTRP ensures high Throughput, high Packet Delivery Ratio, and acceptable End-to-End delay in the presence of changing networking conditions. FTRP performs well in dense and sparse networks while nodes are mobile. Stationary simulations represented the worst-case behavior. This is attributed to synchronized nodes, where nodes send similar messages at the same time.


Keywords: Fault tolerance, Proactive routing, Wireless sensor networks, NS-3.


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