International Frequency Sensor Association (IFSA) Newsletter
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IFSA Newsletter, No. 12, December 2004
In this issue:
1. Letter from the President
2. CAN in Medical Devices
3. New Sensor Books (2004)
4. For Advertisers
5. Sensors & Transducers Magazine (e-Digest), No.12, December 2004
6. Sensors Web Portal Up-dates Briefs
7. Subscriber services
8. Additional Information
Dear Colleagues !
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Prof., Dr. Nikolay V. Kirianaki
CAN in Medical Devices
As far back as the early 1990s, the flexibility, robustness, reliability and reasonable costs made the standardized Controller Area Network (CAN) serial bus (ISO 11898) interesting for use in the field of medical technology. Initially, due to the lack of an industrial standard protocol, numerous proprietary communication profiles with a focus on individual application requirements were developed. The standardized CANopen application layer and communication profile (EN 50325-4) filled this void, enabling the simple integration of devices from various vendors and providing the basis for the re-use of CAN devices in several applications. By the end of the 1990s, CANopen had become the common industrial standard for system control in medical imaging devices. In such devices several CANopen networks are implemented.
“The definition of CANopen device profiles, e.g. for generic input/output and motion control devices was an important step in helping to simplify the modular configuration of medical devices, thus allowing the use of standard industrial modules and off-the-shelf software packages,” says Don Medlar from Siemens Medical Solutions about this topic.
The CANopen application layer and communication profile defines several communication services and protocols. The Process Data Object (PDO) protocol transmits with different scheduling modes real-time data. It is implemented in a single CAN message. The Service Data Object (SDO) protocols transmit configuration or diagnostic data. These protocols support data segmentation and re-assembling in order to overcome the 8-byte limitation of the data field in a CAN message. SDO is a confirmed service, which means that the receiver responds to a message. Therefore two CAN messages are necessary. The network management protocols contain the controlling of the device’s communication state machine (NMT protocol), the signaling of the successful power-on procedure (Boot-up protocol), and the indication of the device’s communication status (Heartbeat protocol). They are all mapped to single CAN messages.
Additionally, there is the Emergency protocol, which reports device failures, and the Time protocol, which provides the system time (in milliseconds). Both protocols are mapped to single CAN messages.
Besides the generic device profiles for sensors, electrical drives, and I/O modules, there are specific profiles for medical sub-systems. One example thereof is the device profile for automatic X-ray collimators targeting the OEM market. General Electric Healthcare, Philips Medical Systems, and Siemens Medical Solutions have developed this profile jointly. Other CANopen profiles for dose-meters, stands and tables as well as X-ray generators are under development. Currently the standardization of a new class of device profiles for medical diagnostic add-on modules, such as contrast media injectors and electro-cardiograms (ECG) are in work. The contrast media injector profile covers devices to be used with AG (angiography), CT (computer tomography), MR (magnet resonance), and US (ultrasonic) scanners. The profile supports also multi-piston injectors. The communication and application is defined. The scanner provides CANopen manager functionality, and the injector functions as CANopen NMT slave device. In order to avoid the assignment of node-identifiers, a geographical addressing scheme is recommended.
The CANopen specifications contain frameworks for a flying NMT master and network redundancy as well as for safety-related communication. The CANopen safety protocol has recently been implemented in a single processor featuring a Safety Integrity Level (SIL) of 3 according to the IEC 61508 standard. The CSC01 16-bit micro-controller is available from CiA. CiA also offers the CANopen conformance test tool. This tool is the base for the CANopen certification performed by CiA. Devices that pass the test successfully, receive the official CANopen certificate.
CAN in Automation
New Sensor Books (2004)
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Sensors & Transducers e-Digest (ISSN 1726-5479), No. 12, December 2004
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