Sensors and Systems Journal, No. 8, August 2009 (Contents and Abstracts)
Kasatkin S. I., Muraviov A. M., Plotnikova N. V., et al. Thin-film anisotropic magnetoresisteve nano-elements for control systems
The paper presents the results of the development of thin-film anisotropic magnetoresistive nano-elements for control systems based on multilayer metallic ferromagnetic nanostructures and their investigation at the Institute of Control Sciences of the Russian Academy and the Technology Center of the Moscow Institute of Electronic Technology.
Keywords: multilayer metallic ferromagnetic nanostructures.
Kasimov A. M. Pneumatic automation today
The paper briefly overviews the application of membrane and jet pneumatic devices for control systems and shows their most promising development lines.
Keywords: pneumatic control systems, jet devices. pneumatic amplifier, functional generator, aircraft engine.
Petrukhin B. P., Shavykin N. A. The analysis of safety test results for CMDS LSI and VLSI circuits
The reliability test results for CMDS LSI and VLSI circuits manufactures by Xilinx and Altera are analyzed. Upper estimates of fault rate with confidence probability P=0.9 for all types of digital chips from these vendors are obtained.
Keywords: VLSI chips, programmable logical arrays, memory elements, reliability indices.
Legovich Yu. S., Maksimov Yu. V., Maksimov D. Yu. Automated monitoring of road surface roughness
The paper discusses the implementation possibility of the devices for automatic monitoring of road surface roughness.
Keywords: road surface roughness, vehicle vibrations, acceleration sensors, electromechanical analogies.
Kartsev E. A. Interactive electronic reference book Sensors for non-electrical measurements
The structure and operation algorithm for an electronic reference book on non-electrical measurements are considered. The reference book comprises both databases and knowledge bases.
Keywords: electronic reference book, pressure sensors, structure, metrological performance.
Buznikov S. E., Shabanov N. S. Soft sensors for car tires and brakes temperature
An indirect measurement technique for temperature fields of car tires and temperatures of brakes is discussed. The technique is based on a mathematical model of tire heating. Model parameter identification methods, simulation and experimental results and included.
Keywords: active safety systems, indirect measurement techniques, mathematical models.
Muyakshin S. I., Vladimirov I. A. Ultrasonic Doppler system for gas-liquid mixture flowmetering
The system for phase flowrate measuring in gas-liquid streams without preliminary phase separation is described. The non-contact input of ultrasound in the stream is used in the measuring system. For this purpose, a laid on piezoelectric phased array in the pipe wall is used for raising a flexural wave which is transmitted into the stream. The information necessary for measuring the flowrates of liquid and gas phases is retrieved from the sliding Doppler spectra of echo signals scattered by stream heterogeneities. Experimental data confirming system serviceability in a wide range of liquid and gas phase flow ratios are presented.
Keywords: Doppler flowmeter, laid on transducer, phased array, two-phase flow, bullet flow.
Krasnoschekov I. P., Morozov L. D., Pihtelev A. I., et al. Portable laser vibration analyzer
Design issues and specifications of the first Russian industrial laser vibration analyzer with improved sensitivity are considered.
Keywords: laser vibration analyzer, Doppler frequency shift, optical system, remote measurements.
Kudryavtsev A. M., Kulikov A. B., Nikulin C. M. Probe measurement transducers for the analysis of coaxial circuit elements
A new method for analyzing the elements of coaxial circuit by means of probe measurement transducers is offered. The paper discusses the mathematical model of the transducer, calibration procedures and measurement technique of coaxial circuit elements. Experimental results are included.
Keywords: probe measurement transducer, wave parameters of dissipation, coaxial circuit, frequency window method, calibration, measurements, data processing.
Dzhashitov V. E., Pankratov V. M., Barulina M. A, Mathematical modelling of a pressure sensor under mechanical and thermal shocks
The connected mathematical models of non-stationary thermal processes, thermoelastic deflected mode and sensorís rigidity are built for a pressure sensor used for condition monitoring and diagnostics of a airspace vehicles and operating under mechanical and thermal shocks. Sensorís non-stationary temperature fields and thermoelastic deflected mode are calculated and analyzed. Rigidity estimates are obtained for the operation under mechanical and thermal impacts. Computer experiments verifying the adequacy and serviceability of sensorís mathematics and software are conducted; quantitative estimates are obtained, and the recommendations on sensorís effective operation are made.
Keywords: pressure sensor, temperature fields, deflected mode, finite-element mathematical model, mechanical and thermal shocks.
Vladimirov V. A., Porshnev S. V., Friedman I. S. Process data analysis for detecting the precursors of gas-pumping unit emergency shutdown
The article analyzes the features of mathematic models describing the dynamics of gas-pumping unitís (GPA) characteristics. The models are built on the basis of the group method of data handling (GMDH) for the time period preceding the emergency shutdown. The opportunity of early pre-emergency condition detection is shown.
Keywords: gas-pumping unit, mathematical model, group method of data handling (GMDH).
Barmasov V. D., Vanyushev B. V., Vorobyov V. V., et al. X-ray fluorescent diamond separator with multi-processor control system
The paper discusses the structure of a small-size X-ray fluorescent diamond separator with multi-processor distributed control system and digital signal processing. The device is intended for sorting diamond concentrates. Control system, software, and operation algorithms are described. Experimental research results and performance attributes are included.
Keywords: separation, diamond separator, X-ray fluorescence, diamond industry, control systems, digital signal processing, smoothing windows.
Vanyushev B. V. The efficiency of signal processing in X-ray fluorescent diamond separators
The paper presents the results of MathCad modeling of digital signal processing algorithms used currently in X-ray fluorescent diamond separators with continuous excitation. Based on the modeling results, the efficiency of the algorithms is estimated, and the comparison against traditional analog signal processing techniques employed in analog X-ray fluorescent diamond separators is undertaken. The problem of time resolution of fluorescent mineralsí signals is examined that is especially important for two-stage separators with pneumatic block valves used at the first separation stage.
Keywords: diamond separator, X-ray fluorescence, diamond industry, control systems, digital signal processing, median filtering, smoothing windows, time resolution of signals.
Kozlov A. I., Pirogov A. V., Struchebnikov V. M. Modeling piezoresistive pressure transducers based on SOS structures. Two-diaphragm transducers
Finite elements technique is used for calculating the strain of the surface of sensing elements based on SOS structures in two-diaphragm piezoresistive pressure transducers and the related resistance changes in the piezoresistors located on the sensing elements. The calculations fit well the experimental distribution of piezoresistorsí sensitivity over the sensing elementís surface and can be used for process optimization.
Keywords: piezoresistive transducer, modeling, silicon-on-sapphire structure, two-diaphragm structure.
Belozubov E. M., Vasiliev V. A., Gromkov N. V. Challenges and research fields of thin-film nano- and microelectromechanical pressure sensor systems
The problems arising during pressure sensors operation in airspace applications are discussed. The role and place of thin-film piezoresistive pressure sensors based on thin-film nano- and microelectromechanical systems are shown. Key research areas are overviewed. The importance of improving sensorsí precision and operating characteristics up to worldís top level and farther is emphasized, and the ways to accomplish this task are outlined. Further research lines enabling the development of sensors resistant to variable temperatures and high vibrations are determined.
Keywords: piezoresistive pressure sensors, thin-film nano- and microelectromechanical systems, airspace vehicles, vibratory acceleration.
Alaluev R. V., Ivanov Yu. V., Malyutin D. M., et al. High-precision algorithmic compensation of temperature instability of accelerometerís scaling factor
An electrical circuit for high-precision compensation of commercial accelerometerís scaling factor is offered. Theoretical substantiation and experimental verification of the circuit applicability are undertaken.
Keywords: temperature instability, algorithmic compensation of accelerometerís temperature error.
Raspopov V. Ya., Turchaninov V. V., Ivanov Yu. V. The influence of 3-component vibration on the axial micromechanical accelerometer
The causes of zero shift in an axial micromechanical accelerometer under 3-component vibration are examined. The results of Matlab modeling and the analysis of zero shift dependence on accelerometerís design parameters are presented.
Keywords: axial micromechanical accelerometer, vibrational shift of accelerometerís zero.
Gusev V. G., Demin A. Yu., Mirina T. V. Getting information on the state and parameters of complex heat-dependent objects
The development problems of measuring systems for evaluating the parameters of the complex heat-dependent objects are examined. Research results are discussed.
Keywords: measuring systems, measuring transducers, diagnostics, heat-dependent objects, specified electric power.
Titov V. S., Trufanov M. I. Hardware-oriented algorithms and image processing devices based on programmable logic IC for machine vision systems with recognition
Hardware-oriented error correction algorithms for optoelectronic moving object detectors and image fuzziness compensation are considered as well as image processing devices based on programmable logic IC implementing these algorithms.
Keywords: machine vision systems, hardware-oriented algorithms, image processing, optical systemís distortion, moving object detection.
Klimenkov S. Yu., Legaev V. P. Piezoelectric flow controller
The paper describes a flow controller based on piezoelectric shutter drive for liquid or gaseous lubrication batching, e.g., in friction bearings. Controllerís design and the principles of it key element assemblage are discussed. Functional diagrams of test benches for investigating steady-state characteristics of piezoactuator are presented.
Keywords: converse piezoelectric effect, piezoelectric controller, liquid and gas flowrate, piezoelectric shutter drive, hydropneumatic devices, mechanical and ekectrical connection of piezoplates, steady-state characteristics of piezoelectric throttle.
Kondratov V. T., Reídko V. V. Fiber-optic pressure sensors with amplitude modulation of optical signal: basic definitions and classification
Amplitude fiber-optic pressure sensors are classified from the viewpoint of system-hierarchical approach. New attributive features, which characterize and determine the individuality and the generality of sensors are revealed and formulated. A clear and rigorous system of terms and definitions is proposed for the designation of various types of amplitude fiber-optic pressure sensors.
Keywords: classification, fiber-optic pressure sensor, system-hierarchical approach.
Pistun E. P., Lesovoy L. W. Raskhod-RU CAD system for calculation and design of variable pressure differential flowmeters
The paper describes Raskhod-RU interactive CAD system for calculation and design of variable pressure differential flowmeters according to the requirements of the new GOST 8.586.1,2,3,4,5-2005 interstate standards. Systemís featured properties, capabilities and development prospect are described. The paper shows that the application of Raskhod-RU improves the accuracy of energy accounting.
Keywords: CAD system, variable differential pressure sensor, restriction, measurement accuracy, interstate standard.
Dzhezhora A. A., Rubanik V. V., Savchuk V. K. Electrocapacitive liquid level sensor
Theoretical background of the design of electrocapacitive level sensors insensitive to vibrations and liquid surface roughness is presented. The choice of optimal electrodes geometry as well as electrode wafer and coating material with reference to their hydrophobic features are discussed.
Keywords: level sensor, capacity, modeling, electric field.
Granovsky V. A. Measurement assurance at an industrial enterprise: problems and solutions
The paper discusses conceptual and system issues of measurement assurance system design at an industrial enterprise. The system should be positioned as a part of enterprise quality management system; process approach should underlie its development and operation as methodological background. The processes for implementing metrological functions and the system of enterprise standards regulating the mechanisms of managing these processes are described.
Keywords: enterprise, measurement assurance, system, process approach, enterprise standard.
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