bullet Physical and Chemical Sensors: Design, Applications & Networks

   (Open Access Book)


  Title: Physical and Chemical Sensors: Design, Applications & Networks (Book Series: Advances in Sensors: Reviews, Vol. 7)

  Editor: Sergey Y. Yurish

  Publisher: International Frequency Sensor Association (IFSA) Publishing

  Formats: paperback (print book) and printable pdf Acrobat (e-book) 298 pages

  Price: 120.00 EUR (shipping cost by a standard mail without a tracking code is included)

  Delivery time for print book: 7-17 days dependent on country of destination. Please contact us for priority (5-9 days), ground (3-8 days) and express (3-5 days) delivery options by e-mail

  Pubdate: 30 December 2019

  ISBN: 978-84-09-14512-6

  e-ISBN: 978-84-09-14511-9


  Creative Commons License



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 Advances in Sensors: Reviews, Vol. 7



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 Book Description



The very rapid progress in sensor research, applications and technologies are continuing during the last decade. Sensors have become one of the most important and widely used components in various applications. According to Allied Market Research (AMR), the global market of sensors and main types of transducers is poised to grow with a compound annual growth rate of 11.3 % until 2022 when the market will reach US$ 241 billion. The increasing utilization and penetration of Internet of Things (IoT), coupled with increasing automation in vehicles and smart wearable systems for health monitoring, is expected to augment the growth of the sensor market over the forecast period.


Today, more and more sensor manufacturers are using machine learning to sensors and signal data for analyses. The machine learning and signal data analyses are becoming easier than ever: hardware is becoming smaller and sensors are getting cheaper, making Internet of things devices widely available for a variety of applications ranging from predictive maintenance to user behavior monitoring. To guarantee the steady progress in sensor manufacturing and development, the strong connection of sensor industry with the academy is necessary. The ‘Advances in Sensors: Reviews’ Book Series is a significant tool for such relationship.


The 7th volume entitled ‘Physical and Chemical Sensors: Design, Applications & Networks’ contains 12 chapters with sensor related state-of-the-art reviews and descriptions of latest achievements written by 34 authors-experts from academia and industry from 12 countries: Germany, Hong Kong, India, Mexico, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Senegal, Spain, Turkey, Ukraine and USA.


The coverage includes current developments in physical sensors (MEMS flow sensors, load sensors and gyroscopes); chemical sensors for humidity in gases and anti-cancer agents; readout circuitry for various PWM output sensors and transducers; and autoconfigurable wireless sensor networks.






Chapter 1. CMOS Readout of MEMS Flow Sensors

1.1. Introduction
1.2. Flow Sensors
1.2.1. Mass Flow Based Flow Sensors Coriolis Flow Meters Thermal Mass Flow Meters
1.2.2. Velocity Based Flow Sensor Ultrasonic Flow Meters Vortex Flow Meters
1.2.3. Differential Pressure Based Flow Sensors Orifice Plate Flow Meter Venturi Tube Flow Meter	
1.2.4. Positive Displacement Flow Sensors
1.3. MEMS Flow Sensor for Our Application	
1.3.1. Proposed MEMS Flow Sensor
1.3.2. Heater Control Circuit
1.4. CMOS Readout Circuit for MEMS Flow Sensor
1.4.1. First Generation CMOS MEMS Flow Sensor Design Considerations for the CMOS Readout Circuit Transistor-level Implementation of CFIA Measurement Results
1.4.2. Second Generation CMOS MEMS Flow Sensor Readout Circuit Design of 2nd Gen CMOS MEMS Flow Sensor Measurement Results of 2nd Gen CMOS MEMS Flow Sensor
1.5. Conclusion

Chapter 2. Vehicle’s Axle Load Sensors  in Weigh-in-motion Systems

2.1. Background
2.2. Principle of Axle Load Sensors
2.3. Types of Axle Load Sensors	
2.3.1. Polymer Sensors
2.3.2. Quartz Sensors
2.3.3. Strain Gauge Sensors
2.3.4. Capacitive Sensors
2.3.5. Fiber Optic Sensors
2.4. Comparative Study
2.5. Summary

Chapter 3. Integrated-optics Resonator (IORG) Gyros: A Review

3.1. Introduction
3.2. IORG: Main Configurations Looking for the Progressive Reduction 
of Parasitic Optical Noises
3.2.1. Research Results Obtained by H. Ma et al. Group
3.2.2. Research Results Obtained by L. Feng et al. Group
3.3. IORG: Hybrid and Monolithic Integration Solutions
3.4. IORG: Advanced Design, Trends and Optimization
3.5. Conclusions

Chapter 4. Ionic Liquids in Chemical Sensing: A Window of Opportunities Abbreviations

4.1. Introduction
4.2. Ionic Liquids as Chemical Sensors
4.2.1. Heavy Metal Sensing
4.2.2. Ion Sensing
4.2.3. Organic Compounds Sensing
4.2.4. Gas Sensing Oxygen (O2) Gas Sensing Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Sensing Hydrogen (H2) Gas Sensing Ammonia (NH3) Gas Sensing Volatile Organic Compounds Sensing
4.2.5. Bioanalyte Sensors
4.3. Conclusions

Chapter 5. High Sensitively Chemiresistive Sensor Based on Novel 2D MXene and TiO2 Nanocomposite for Detection of Anti-cancer Agent, 8-HOA

5.1. Introduction
5.2. Experiments
5.2.1. MXenes Synthesis and Characteristics TiO2 NWs Synthesis MXenes Ti3C2 Synthesis Ti3C2 MXene& TiO2 NWs synthesis
5.2.2. Real-time Sensing Detection of Variable Concentration of 8-HOA
5.3. Discussion
5.3.1. Material Characterization
5.3.2. 8-HOA Sensing Response Tests
5.4. Conclusion

Chapter 6. Humidity Measurement in Gases

6.1. Humidity Measurement Methods
6.2. Thermodynamic Terms in Humidity Measurement
6.3. Overview of the Most Commonly Used Humidity Measurement Devices
6.4. Principles of Humidity Measurement in Gases
6.4.1. Dew Point Hygrometer
6.4.2. Psychrometer
6.4.3. Capacitive Polymer Sensors
6.4.4. Coulometric Measurement
6.4.5. Metal Oxide Sensors
6.4.6. Measurement of the Optical Properties of Water and Water Vapor
6.4.7. Hair and Fiber Hygrometer
6.4.8. Zirconium Oxide Devices
6.4.9. Quartz Microbalance
6.4.10. Measurement of Acoustic Properties of Water Vapor
6.4.11. Resistive Sensors
6.4.12. Humidity Indicator
6.4.13. Nanostructured Measurement Devices Contact Methods Noncontact Methods

Chapter 7. RGB Multispectral Microanalyzer

7.1. Introduction
7.2. Microanalizer Development
7.2.1. Microfluidic Structure
7.2.2. Hydrodynamic
7.2.3. RGB Optical Detection System Radiation Resource Calibration The radiation Flow Detection
7.2.4. Electronic Control and Wireless for Automation Process
7.3. Analytical
7.4. Experimental Set-up
7.5. Results and Discussion
7.6. Conclusion

Chapter 8. Energy Audit and Contactless Temperature Measurement

8.1. Introduction
8.1.1. Reconstruction of Buildings
8.1.2. Energy Audit
8.1.3. Replacement of Energy-inefficient Heating Systems
8.1.4. Construction of Smart Energy-efficient Buildings
8.2. Improvement of Energy Balance of the House due to Exact Contactless Temperature Measurement of Surfaces
8.3. The practice of Pyrometry and Analysis of Problem
8.4. Minimization of the Measurement Error of Pyrometer
8.5. Example of Implementing the Method
8.6. Conclusions

Chapter 9. Indoor Stereo Photogrammetry  via Omnidirectional Multicamera System Case Study: Ladybug2

9.1. Introduction
9.2. Coordinate Systems and Calibration
9.3. Application
9.4. Results of Application
9.5. Conclusion

Chapter 10. Improved PWM A/D Conversion Technique: Working Principle and Model Validation Abbreviations and Symbols

10.1. Introduction
10.2. Basics of PWM A/D Conversion
10.2.1. Traditional PWM Based A/D Conversion
10.3. Improved PWM Based A/D Conversion
10.3.1. Block Diagram and Principle of Operation
10.3.2. Expression of the Converter Characteristic Function
10.3.3. RC Time Constant Dimensioning
10.3.4. Conversion Range
10.4. Simulation Results
10.4.1. Voltage Variation in the Capacitor during the Conversion Cycle
10.4.2. Quantization Errors for a Sinusoidal Signal
10.5. Experimental Results
10.6. Conclusions

Chapter 11. Improved PWM A/D Conversion Technique: Applications for Digital Sensors and Sensor Systems Abbreviations and Symbols

11.1. Introduction
11.2. Main Advantages of PWM NPC A/D Conversion Technique
11.2.1. Linearization of Characteristics
11.2.2. Conversion Range Adjustment
11.3. Auto-calibration
11.4. Experimental Study Cases
11.4.1. Linearization of a Thermistor Characteristic
11.4.2. Linearization a Flow Meter Characteristic
11.5. Conclusions

Chapter 12. Energy Efficient Key Management Protocol for Securing Autoconfigurable Networks

12.1. Introduction
12.2. Background and Related Works
12.2.1. Symmetric Key Cryptographic Systems Random Key Pre-distribution Schemes Schemes Based on the Base Station Participation or on a Master Key Pre-distribution
12.2.2. Asymmetric Key Cryptographic Systems PKI Based Schemes Node Identity Based Schemes
12.2.3. Comparative Analysis
12.3. LESDTP: A New Key Management Protocol
12.3.1. Protocol Overview
12.3.2. Assumptions
12.3.3. Notations
12.3.4. Phases of the LESDTP Protocol Key Management and Network Implementation Phase Key Maintenance Phase
12.4. Evaluation of LESDTP Protocol
12.4.1. Security Services Offered by the LESDTP Protocol Data Integrity and Source Node Authentication Data Confidentiality Data Freshness
12.4.2. LESDTP’s Resistance to Attacks
12.4.3. LESDTP Performance Analysis Attacker Model LESDTP Analysis Relatively to This Attacker Model
12.4.4. LESDTP Comparison with Some Protocols of the State of the Art
12.5. Conclusion and Future Works




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