bullet Ultrasonic Transducers: Materials and Design for Sensors, Actuators and Medical Applications


 Title: Ultrasonic Transducers: Materials and Design for Sensors, Actuators and Medical Applications

 Editor: Kentaro Nakamura

 Publisher: Woodhead Publishing

 Hardcover: 748 pages

 Pubdate: 5 September 2012

 ISBN: 1845699890



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Book Description



Ultrasonic transducers are key components in sensors for distance, flow and level measurement as well as power and other applications of ultrasound. This book reviews recent research in the design and application of this important technology.

Part one provides an overview of materials and design of ultrasonic transducers. It explores piezoelectricity and basic configurations, along with electromagnetic acoustic transducers, and the use of ceramics, thin film and single crystals. Part two goes on to investigate modeling and characterization and considers in detail performance modeling, electrical evaluation, laser Doppler vibrometry and optical visualization. Part three focuses on applications of ultrasonic transducers, beginning with a review of surface acoustic wave devices and air-borne ultrasound transducers, and goes on to consider ultrasonic high temperature and flaw detection systems, power, biomedical and micro scale ultrasonics, therapeutic ultrasound devices, piezoelectric and fibre optic hydrophones, and ultrasonic motors.

With its distinguished editor and expert team of international contributors, Ultrasonic transducers is an authoritative review of key developments for engineers and materials scientists involved in this area of technology as well as in its applications in sectors as diverse as electronics, wireless communication and medical diagnostics.





- reviews recent research in the design and application of ultrasonic transducers
- provides an overview of the materials and design of ultrasonic transducers, with an in-depth exploration of piezoelectricity and basic configurations
- investigates modelling and characterisation, applications of ultrasonic transducers, and ultrasonic transducers for use at high temperature and in flaw detection systems
- an authoritative review of key developments for engineers and materials scientists involved in this area of technology as well as in its applications in sectors as diverse as electronics, wireless communication and medical diagnostics

About the Author

Kentaro Nakamura is Associate Professor at Toyko Institute of Technology, Japan. He is also in charge of directing research at the Ueha-Nakamura Laboratory, where his research group is working to formulate a technique or device for high speed visualization of acoustic fields.





Piezoelectricity and basic configurations for piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers
S. Cochran, University of Dundee, UK
- Introduction
- The piezoelectric effect
- Piezoelectric materials
- The single-element transducer
- Other piezoelectric transducer configurations
- Future trends and conclusions
- Sources of further information
- References

Electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs)
G. Hübschen, Fraunhofer Institut Zerstörungsfreie Prüfverfahren, Germany
- Introduction
- Lorentz force type transducers: normal probes
- Lorentz force type transducers: angle beam probes
- Magnetostriction type transducers
- Conclusion
- References

Piezoelectric ceramics for ultrasonic transducers
K. Uchino, The Pennsylvania State University, USA and Office of Naval Research – Global, Japan
- History of piezoelectrics: dawn period
- History of piezoelectrics: after World War II
- Recent development in piezoelectrics
- New trends in piezoelectrics
- Piezoelectric figures of merit
- Piezoelectric resonance
- Overview of current piezoelectric materials
- Thin-films used in bulk acoustic and surface acoustic wave devices
- Surface acoustic wave (SAW) materials
- Future trends in piezoelectric transducer designs
- References

Thin film ultrasonic transducers based on lead zirconate titanate (PZT)
M. K. Kurosawa, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan
- Introduction
- Hydrothermal process to deposit lead zirconate titanate (PZT) material
- Bending and longitudinal vibration by d
- High intensity vibrator for micro ultrasonic scalpel
- Thickness vibration by d
- Epitaxial film
- Conclusions
- References

Piezoelectric single crystals in ultrasonic transducers
Y. Yamashita, Toshiba Research Consulting Corporation, Japan and Y Hosono, Toshiba Corporation, Japan
- Introduction
- PIMNT ceramics
- PIMNT single crystals grown by the flux method
- PIMNT single crystals grown by the Bridgman method
- Recent progress of PIMNT single crystals and their application
- Future trends and conclusions
- References



Modelling ultrasonic transducer performance: one-dimensional models
S. Cochran and C. E. M. Démoré, University of Dundee, UK and C R P Courtney, University of Bristol, UK
- Introduction
- Transducer performance expressed through the wave equation
- Equivalent electrical circuit models
- The linear systems model
- Examples of D transducer model results
- Future trends and conclusions
- Sources of further information
- References

Modelling the performance of micro-acoustic devices using the boundary element method
A. Baghai-Wadji, RMIT University, Australia
- Introduction
- Acoustic wave equation: shear horizontal vibrations
- Construction of infinite domain Green’s functions: field analysis using 2D Fourier transform
- Field analysis using 1D Fourier transform
- Construction of the Green’s function
- Near-field asymptotic expansion of G22(x-X',z-z' w)
- Construction of the near-field expansion of (k--) based on the G22(x-X',z-z' w) asymptotic expansions of eigenpairs
- On the determination of the asymptotic expansion terms for (n-0)
- The proposed method for the calculation of eigenpairs
- Future trends
- Sources of further information
- Acknowledgments
- References

Electrical evaluation of piezoelectric transducers
K. Nakamura, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan
- Introduction
- Electrical equivalent circuit
- Electrical measurements
- Characterization of piezoelectric transducers under high power operation
- Load test
- Conclusions
- References

Laser Doppler vibrometry for measuring vibration of ultrasonic transducers
M. Johansmann and G. Wirth, Polytec GmbH, Germany
- Introduction
- Laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) for non-contact vibration measurements
- The principle of scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV)
- Characterization of ultrasonic transducers and optimisation of ultrasonic tools
- Verification and optimization of ultrasonic tools in industrial production
- Visualization of the transducer sound pressure field by means of scanning
- laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV)
- Enhanced laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) designs for special measurement requirements
- Conclusions
- References

Optical visualization of acoustic fields: the schlieren technique, the Fresnel method and the photoelastic method applied to ultrasonic transducers
K. Yamamoto, Kansai University, Japan
- Introduction
- Schlieren visualization technique
- Fresnel visualization method
- Photoelastic visualization method
- References


Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices
K. Hashimoto, Chiba University, Japan
- Introduction
- Interdigital transducers (IDTs)
- Unidirectional transducers
- Coupling-of-modes theory
- Transversal surface acoustic wave (SAW) filter
- Single-phase unidirectional transducer (SPUDT) filters
- Surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators
- Conclusions
- References

Air-borne ultrasound transducers
D. A. Hutchins, University of Warwick, UK and A Neild, Monash University, Australia
- Introduction
- Basic design principles of air-borne ultrasound transducers
- Transducer designs for use in air
- Radiated fields in air
- Applications of air-borne ultrasound transducers
- Future trends
- Sources of further information and advice
- Acknowledgements
- References

Ultrasonic transducers for non-destructive evaluation at high temperatures
M. Kobayashi and C.-K. Jen, Industrial Materials Institute, Canada
- Introduction
- Sol-gel composite material for ultrasonic transducers
- Ultrasonic transducers made with sol-gel composite materials
- Structural health monitoring demonstration
- Process monitoring demonstration
- Conclusions
- Sources of further information
- References

Analysis and synthesis of frequency-diverse ultrasonic flaw detection systems using Order Statistics and Neural Network Processors
J. Saniie and E. Oruklu, Illinois Institute of Technology, USA
- Introduction
- Ultrasonic flaw detection techniques
- Neural network detection processor
- Flaw detection performance evaluation
- System-on-chip implementation – a case study
- Future trends and conclusions
- Sources of further information
- References

Power ultrasonics: new technologies and applications for fluid processing
J. A. Gallego-Juárez, Higher Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Spain
- Introduction
- Characteristics of the new family of power transducers with extensive radiators
- Application of the new power ultrasonic technologies in processing
- Power ultrasound in environmental processes
- Conclusions
- Acknowledgements
- References

Nonlinear acoustics and selected applications in biomedical ultrasonics
P. A. Lewin, Drexel University, USA and A. Nowicki, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland
- Introduction
- Measurements of and advances in determination of B/A parameter
- Advances in tissue harmonic imaging
- Nonlinear acoustics in ultrasound metrology
- Nonlinear wave propagation in hydrophone probes' calibration
- Nonlinear acoustics in therapeutic applications
- Conclusions
- Acknowledgements
- References

Therapeutic ultrasound with an emphasis on applications to the brain
P. D. Mourad, University of Washington, USA
- Introduction
- Fundamentals of propagation and absorption of ultrasound
- Physical and chemical processes engendered by medical ultrasound
- Diagnostic ultrasound
- Therapeutic ultrasound
- Conclusion
- References

Micro scale ultrasonic sensors and actuators
A. Ramkumar and A. Lal, Cornell University, USA
- Introduction: ultrasonic horn actuators
- Advantages of silicon-based technology
- Silicon ultrasonic horns
- Sensor integration and fabrication of silicon horns: planar metal electrode array
- Planar electrode characterization
- Piezoresistive strain gauges
- Applications: tissue penetration force reduction
- Applications: cardiac electrophysiological measurement
- Applications: microscale tissue metrology in testicular sperm extraction (TESE) surgery
- Conclusions
- References

Piezoelectric and fiber optic hydrophones
A. Hurrell, Precision Acoustics Ltd, UK and P Beard, University College London, UK
- Introduction
- General hydrophone considerations
- Piezoelectric hydrophones
- Fibre optic hydrophones
- Eisenmenger fibre optic hydrophone
- Fabry Perot polymer film fibre optic hydrophone
- Multilayer dielectric fibre optic hydrophone
- Other types of fibre optic hydrophone
- The role of fibre optic hydrophones in ultrasound metrology
- Conclusions
- References

Ultrasonic motors
K. Nakamura, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan
- Introduction
- Standing wave ultrasonic motors
- Travelling wave ultrasonic motors
- Performance of ultrasonic motors
- Future trends and conclusions
- References



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