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Vol. 72, No. 10, October 2006




Table of Contents




Thermocouples vs. RTDs and Thermistors (Letter to Editor)


Jerry Gaffney,

Chief Engineer,

GEC Instruments, USA



Modeling of an Aged Porous Silicon Humidity Sensor Using ANN Technique


Porous silicon (PS) sensor based on capacitive technique used for measuring relative humidity has the advantages of low cost, ease of fabrication with controlled structure and CMOS compatibility. But the response of the sensor is nonlinear function of humidity and suffers from errors due to aging and stability. One adaptive linear (ADALINE) ANN model has been developed to model the behavior of the sensor with a view to estimate these errors and compensate them. The response of the sensor is represented by third order polynomial basis function whose coefficients are determined by the ANN technique. The drift in sensor output due to aging of PS layer is also modeled by adapting the weights of the polynomial function. ANN based modeling is found to be more suitable than conventional physical modeling of PS humidity sensor in changing environment and drift due to aging. It helps online estimation of nonlinearity as well as monitoring of the fault of the PS humidity sensor using the coefficients of the model.


Tarikul ISLAM, Hiranmay SAHA

Jadavpur University and Jamia Millia Islamia University




Optimized Design of Microresonators Using Genetic Algorithm


This paper represents the optimization of micro resonator design using Genetic Algorithm. Optimized physical layout parameters are generated using genetic algorithm. Optimization evaluates parameter by minimizing active device area, electrostatic drive voltage or a weighted combination of area and drive voltage or by maximizing displacement at resonance. Desired resonant frequency and mode frequency separations are governed by the objective function. Layouts are generated for optimized design parameters using Coventorware. Modal analysis is performed and it is compared with the designed resonant frequency.


G.Uma, A. Girija, M. Umapathy

National Institute of Technology,

Tiruchirappalli, India



MEMS Capacitive Thermal Sensor Sensitivity Investigation Using Full Factorial Design Method


In this paper a sensitivity of MEMS capacitive thermal sensors based on deflection of a bimetallic cantilever beam was investigated. Using design of experiment method, and applying a 25 factorial design the effect of factors in this sensor was calculated and main factors that affect on sensor’s sensitivity were identified. Analysis of variance for the main factors of design and their interactions were studied for their significance.


Ghader Rezazadeh, Shahriar Kouravand, Mehdi Mehrban

Urmia University,

Urmia, Iran



Optical Tomography: Infrared Tomography Sensor Configuration Using 4 Parallel Beam Projections


This paper represents the configuration of optical tomography sensor by using infrared emitter and phototransistor. The projection geometry of the sensor is based on the combination of two orthogonal and two rectilinear projections arrays. A fixture is designed for holding all emitter-receiver pairs in parallel. Selection of phototransistor is explained so that the tomography sensor developed is free of noise cause by surrounding environment. This paper describes all points to be considered when design an optical tomography sensor.




Universiti Teknologi Malaysia,




Investigation of Glucose Non-Invasive Measurement Based on NIR Laser


Near-infrared (NIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy represents a feasible and promising approach to the noninvasive prediction of blood glucose concentration. This paper experimentally studied and proposed a novel method to develop a stand-alone measurement system, in which laser beams at several particular wavelengths are collimated and illuminated a sample with low-energy NIR by an optical fibre probe, and the diffused reflectance from the sample is collected by a detector. The experimental scheme of the measurement system has been demonstrated to be reasonable and suitable for detecting the change of diffuse reflected absorbance from phantoms and finger tissue. The experimental results have presented the good correlation between the diffuse reflected absorbance and glucose concentration at several particular wavelengths. The spectra lines are perfectly separate from each other at different glucose concentration in vitro. Obvious differences exist in the diffuse reflected absorbance for different glucose concentration. According to the testing standard of the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT), the dynamic changes, which the diffuse reflected absorbance from tissue is accompanied with the change of the glucose concentration, have been explored by taking a certain amount oral glucose solution. The results have presented that the sensing system proposed is already able to sense the glucose change from fingertip tissue though the overlapping spectra are encountered. Also, the temperature effect of the sample on the diffuse reflected absorbance of the glucose has been taken into consideration.


Yingna Zheng, Nabil Gindy

The University of Nottingham




Structural and Optical Properties of Chemical Bath Deposited CuIn(S,Se)2  Thin Films


Thin films of CuIn(S, Se)2 have been prepared by chemical bath deposition technique at 60o C on glass substrate. The deposition parameters such as pH, temperature and time have been optimized. All films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), and Absorption spectroscopy. The morphology of the CuIn(S, Se)2 was found to be nonstoichiometric. The set of films having different elemental compositions was prepared by varying Cu/In ratio from 1.86 to 12.15 (at %). The films with band gap energies varying from 1.15 eV to 1.54 eV were synthesized by varying composition.


R. H. Bari, L. A. Patil

Pratap College, 






Accelerometers for Heavy Construction and Infrastructure Monitoring Systems


Endevco Corporation has announced a partnership with Smart Structures, Inc. to provide a large quantity of 12M1A Picochip accelerometers in support of Smart Structures SmartPileR heavy construction and infrastructure monitoring systems. Smart Structures' selection and integration of the Endevco surface-mount 12M1A Picochip accelerometer was driven by the device's combination of small form factor, broad frequency response, high shock limit, and high charge output ...


Yeni Hoo,

Senior Communications Specialist

ENDEVCO Corporation

Tel.: 949.493.8181 x242

E-mail: yeni.hoo@endevco.com

12M1A accelerometer



Non-Contact Temperature Measurement Made Simple and Inexpensive


Ieper - Belgium - Temperature is the most often measured physical parameter. However, remote non-contact temperature measurement has previously been complicated and expensive due to the complex signal treatment and calibration involved. In response to this problem, Melexis announces the availability of the MLX90614 infrared thermometer family. This small and cost effective non-contact thermometer delivers a fully calibrated, digital temperature reading of a remote object. It achieves this feat by integrating an infrared sensor and a custom signal conditioning chip in one TO-can package. Due to the built-in intelligence, high accuracy and wide temperature operating range of the MLX90614, OEM manufacturers can easily integrate non-contact temperature measurement in car air conditioning, room heaters, home appliances, handhelds and medical equipment ...


Mr. Tanguy Scorpati


Tel.: +32 (0)13 67 07 95

E-mail: tas@melexis.com


Temperature sensor MLX90614



New Torque Sensors for Test and Measurement Markets


Amherst, NY – Kistler is pleased to announce the expansion of high performance strain-gage sensors, which compliment Kistler’s existing piezoelectric and piezoresistive products. These new torque sensors enhance the product offering for engineers who require high performance, reliable sensors for demanding test applications. Now available are four models ...


Don Beehler

Marketing Specialist

Tel.: (716) 691-5100

Fax: (716) 691-5226

E-mail: don.beehler@kistler.com

Torque sensors



MTS Temposonics® Analog Linear Sensor Combines Performance and Functionality in Rugged Package


CARY, NC-Building on its next-generation Temposonics® design platform, the new R-Series analog sensor from MTS provides enhanced sensing performance along with extended functionality and programmability. As one of the industry's most sophisticated and versatile analog sensors, the R-Series includes fully programmable dual channel outputs for simultaneous position and velocity, or dual magnet position, all within the same compact sensor envelope. With a variety of housing and mounting options, the R-Series analog sensor is ideal for industrial applications, especially harsh environments where EMI, shock and vibration are factors ...


Dave Edeal,

Product Marketing Manager

MTS Temposonics

Tel.: 919-677-0100

E-mail: david.edeal@mts.com

Analog Linear Sensor R-Series



New USB TEDS Sensor Interface Kit


Cincinnati, OH - The Modal Shop introduces the new Model 400B76 TEDS Sensor Interface Kit. The 400B76 offers the capability to communicate with TEDS sensors over a USB port of a Windows PC. With an intuitive graphical interface to the data in a TEDS sensor, the 400B76 reads TEDS from, and writes TEDS to, sensors with a single mouse click. Model 400B76 supports more TEDS templates than any other available TEDS sensor interface kit.


Model 400B76 represents one of the most advanced implementations yet of IEEE 1451.4, the standard for mixed-mode TEDS sensors. The new software is powered by The Modal Shop's latest KTEDS-005 encoding/decoding engine, enabling read/write access to sensors with 256 bits of memory ...


Mr. Marco Peres

Product Manager


Tel.:(513) 351-9919

E-mail: info@modalshop.com

USB TEDS Sensor Interface Kit



Precision Feedback and Control Transducers


Micronor Inc. is proud to announce the new Micronor MR200 series Precision Feedback and Control Transducers based on Micronor’s proprietary Modular Cam Switch System.


Precision Feedback Transducers are at the heart of most high performance CNC machinery – past or present. Over the last few years, several major transducer suppliers (Baumer, Crouzet, Eucron, Thomson Micron, etc.) have dropped product lines, exited the business or simply shut their doors. This has created a dilemma for the OEM equipment manufacturers who pride themselves on support as well as the end-users with “obsolete”
machinery that need to be kept in operation ...


Dennis Horwitz

VP, Sales & Marketing

Micronor Inc., 3483 Old Conejo Rd, Suite 203

Newbury Park, CA 91320

Tel.: 805/499-0114, fax: 805/499-6585

E-mail: dennis.horwitz@micronor.com

Feedback and Control Transducers



Sine Signal Conditioner with a 1Vpp Line Driver


iC-MSB is a signal conditioner with a fault-tolerant line driver for sine/cosine sensors which are used to determine positions in linear and angular encoders, for example. Precision instrumentation amplifiers with differential current or voltage inputs are available for three channels and can be set independently with regard to amplification, offset and phase correction. An integrated controller supplies the sensor with power and ensures that the chip's output levels are stabilized to 1Vpp exactly. At the same time the finely adjustable calibration parameters permit an utmost degree of accuracy during the ensuing interpolation process ...


Joachim Quasdorf,

iC-Haus GmbH, Am Kuemmerling 18,

D-55294 Bodenheim

Tel.: + 49 - (0)6135 - 9292-300,

Fax:+49 - (0)6135 - 9292-192

E-mail: sales@ichaus.com

Sine Signal Conditioner



Low Voltage LVDT Signal Conditioner Designed for Use in PLCs and Vehicular Testing Systems


Pennsauken, NJ, - Macro Sensors, introduces a new single channel, low voltage signal conditioner that supports any standard LVDT, RVDT and VRT half-bridge sensor. Operating from 12V or 24V DC power, the Model LVC-2500 DC-LVDT Signal Conditioner is designed specifically for use in 24V systems with PLCs and mini-PLCs or in 12V mobile and vehicular testing systems.


Units offer three analog outputs: bipolar 0 to "10 V DC, unipolar 24 V DC, or 4 to 20 mA (sourcing) in a 3-wire common ground system in which the power ground is connected to the output signal’s ground.  By shifting a movable internal jumper in the LVC-2500 Signal Conditioner, users can choose between 3, 5, or 10 kHz nominal excitation frequencies at a level of 3V rms for operating LVDTs with primary impedance.  For multiple channel applications, several LVC-2500 modules can be connected together in a master/slave mode to synchronize their excitation oscillator frequency. This eliminates the effects of spurious beat frequency signals, cross talk, and intermodulation effects ...


Ed Herceg,

Macro Sensors

U.S. Route 130 North, Bldg. 22

Pennsauken, NJ 08110-1541

Tel.: 856-662-8000

E-mail: eeh@macrosensors.com

LVDT Signal Conditioner



Digital Load Control Monitors and Protects Pumps


The latest series of the popular compact PMP-25 Digital Load Control now offers versions for three phase and single phase industrial pumps. The PMP25 provides an efficient low cost solution to the prevention of damage to industrial electric pump motors caused by overload, jamming, loss of load, pump dry running or loss of prime. Manufactured by Load Controls Inc USA, the PMP25 Digital Load Control Series is stocked and available in Europe from sensing specialist Vydas International Marketing. The rugged polycarbonate sealed enclosure may be mounted in many configurations including on a door, wall or cabinet or inside the control enclosure. The unit is easy to install and displays true power (Volts x Amps x Power Factor) on a large easy to read bright red digital LED display.


Display configurations include % full load, Horsepower or Kilowatts. Both high and low power trip relays with adjustable start up delay and individual trip timers are standard features. The low power trip, when used to detect dry running, is up to ten times more sensitive than that of conventional undercurrent relays. The 4-20mA analogue output and individual trip relays allow the flexibility of pump motor control and performance monitoring via external instruments such as Computers, Chart Recorders or Data loggers ...


Cliff Wyatt,


Tel.: 44 (0)1428 751822

Fax: 44 (0)1428 751833

E-mail: cliff@vydas.co.uk

Digital Load Control






Multisensor Data and Information Processing

(Special Issue, August 2005)


S&T Special Issue's cover





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