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Vol. 193, Issue 10, October 2015, pp. 145-153




Improving Systems Dynamics by Means of Advanced Signal Processing – Mathematical, Laboratorial
and Clinical Evaluation of Propofol Monitoring in Breathing Gas

1, 2 Dammon ZIAIAN, 2, 3 Philipp ROSTALSKI, 4 Astrid Ellen BERGGREEN, 4 Sebastian BRANDT, 4, 5 Martin GROSSHERR, 4 Hartmut GEHRING,

1 Institute of Electrical Engineering and Measurement Technology, Appelstraße 9a, 30167 Hannover, Germany
Tel.: +49 511 762 4671, 2 Research Unit, Draegerwerk AG & Co.KGaA, Moislinger Allee 53-55, 23558 Luebeck, Germany 3 Now at Universitaet zu Luebeck, Institut fuer Medizinische Elektrotechnik, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23562 Luebeck, Germany Tel.: +49 451 3101 6200, 4 University of Luebeck, Dept. of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23538 Luebeck, Germany Tel.: +49 451 500 4057, 5 Segeberger Kliniken, Abteilung für Kardioanästhesie, Am Kurpark 1, 23795 Bad Segeberg, Germany Tel.: +49 451 593 608 6 Now at SICK AG, Merkurring 20, 22143 Hamburg, Germany

E-mail: dammon.ziaian@web.de, zimmermann@geml.uni-hannover.de, rostalski@ime.uni-luebeck.de, E-mail: berggreen@anaesthesie.uni-luebeck.de, sebastian.brandt@uksh.de, hartmut.gehring@uni-luebeck.de, martin_grossherr@hotmail.com, andreas.hengstenberg@online.de


Received: 31 August 2015 /Accepted: 5 October 2015 /Published: 30 October 2015

Digital Sensors and Sensor Sysstems


Abstract: Electrochemical sensors are used in various gas measurement applications and are available for different gases. Depending on the application, the sensor might need to be installed far away from the actual measurement site, requiring the use of long sampling lines. Examples are portable gas measurement devices in which remote locations like tanks and chemical reactors need to be monitored. But also medical applications, where the sensors cannot be positioned in close vicinity to the patient, are common like, e.g., the side-stream measurement of breathing gas. Due to the characteristics of electrochemical sensors and to the adsorption and desorption behavior of sampling lines for different gases, the electrical sensor signal may indicate long response times. In this paper, we propose an on-line signal processing algorithm which is capable to significantly improve the performance. After characterizing the dynamic behavior of the sensor system, a properly designed deconvolution filter is used to reduce response time and signal noise. Within this article, we also provide an example of this algorithm for a novel electrochemical sensor for the measurement of the anesthetic agent propofol in exhaled air. For this application, the acceleration is prerequisite for the measurement chain to be of practical use in a clinical setting. Our goals, to establish measurement dynamics to record the physiologic parameter and to reduce non-physiological disturbances, were achieved with additional reserves. This article is based on 1 and is extended by original clinical data. As an example, we present propofol monitoring in breath of one patient in order to demonstrate the performance of the introduced algorithm in a real clinical application. We proved that the electrochemical sensor, associated with the provided algorithm, is capable for real-time monitoring in a clinical setting.


Keywords: Deconvolution, Electrochemical sensor, Propofol, Response time, Noise reduction.


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