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Vol. 225, Issue 9, September 2018, pp. 25-35




Nonlinear Electrodynamic Properties of Graphene and Other Two-Dimensional Materials


Institute of Physics, University of Augsburg, Universitaetsstr. 1, Augsburg, D-86135, Germany
Tel.: +49 821 5983255, fax: +49 821 5983262

E-mail: sergey.mikhailov@physik.uni-augsburg.de


Received: 25 June 2018 /Accepted: 31 August 2018 /Published: 30 September 2018

Digital Sensors and Sensor Sysstems


Abstract: Graphene, the first truly two-dimensional (one atom thin) material, possesses strongly nonlinear electrodynamic and optical properties. At low (microwave, terahertz) frequencies this results from the unique electronic property of graphene – the “relativistic”, linear energy dispersion of its electrons and holes. At high (infrared, visible) frequencies its nonlinear response functions have resonances due to the inter-band transitions between the electron and hole bands. The position of these resonances on the frequency axis depends on the Fermi energy, or the charge carrier density, which can be varied by applying a gate voltage in the graphene field-effect transistor. This opens up the unique opportunities to electrically control the nonlinear graphene response, – the property which was not available in conventional (three-dimensional) nonlinear optical materials. In this paper we give a short overview of the state of the art in this rapidly developing area of physics and present some of our recent results in this field. In particular, we discuss essential differences between the nonlinear response functions and parameters of traditional three-dimensional and new two-dimensional crystals.


Keywords: Graphene, Nonlinear optics, Harmonics generation, Four-wave mixing, Optical Kerr effect, Optical heterodyne detection scheme.


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