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Vol. 104, Issue 5, April 2009, pp.47-57





Effect of Low Frequency Pulsed DC on Human Skin in Vivo: Resistance Studies in Reverse Iontophoresis


Pavan Kumar KATHUROJU and Nagaraju JAMPANA

Department of Instrumentation, Indian Institute of Science,

Bangalore, 560012, India

Tel.: 91-80-22932273

E-mail: pavank@isu.iisc.ernet.in



Received: 22 March 2009   /Accepted: 19 May 2009   /Published: 25 May 2009


Abstract: Instrumentation suitable for continuous monitoring of reverse iontophoresis in vivo in human subjects is developed. It supplies the required current and acquires the potential profile of the skin during reverse iontophoresis. Potential profiles showed that skin resistance decreases with the application of current. Experimental results revealed that the application of pulsed DC tends to make the reverse iontophoresis more effective by enhancing the flow of analytes which is proved by the fact that resistance decreases and stabilizes faster in comparison to the one with direct current reverse iontophoresis. The paper emphasizes the importance of selecting an appropriate duty cycle and frequency for reverse iontophoresis. Duty cycle around 95 % and frequency of 250 mHz are good for low frequency reverse iontophoresis. Effect of reverse iontophoresis on the skin recovery is observed by monitoring the potential profiles at the end of the process. In all the reverse iontophoresis experiments, safety of the patient is ensured by fixing a compliance voltage level.


Keywords: Pulsed DC, Reverse iontophoresis, Duty cycle, Skin resistance, Potential


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